The jade works of China are probably China’s most famous form of artistic expression. Chinese jade is defined as any jade artefact created during the Neolithic period and onwards. Chinese jade has long been mined from four famous mines, perhaps the most famous of which is the Dushan mine in the Henan province. Dushan jade has been mined since the Shang dynasty and is now extremely rare. Dushan jade is known as Henan Nanyang Jade. The other most famous jades are Xinjiang Hetian jade, Shanxi Lantain Jade and Liaoning XiuYan Jade. Despite the comparative fame of Dushan jade, Hetian jade is considered superior due to its density and wider variety of colours.
Distance is a key topic in HEMA, and being able to manage distance is an essential skill for a fencer. However, there are a number of open questions regarding distance. What distance should we fight at? Should we fight from a long distance, or a short distance? If we advance towards the opponent, how do we judge when to attack them? Do we fight at the maximum distance we can, or do we try to get closer to the opponent?
This week’s article sets out to describe the research and development of the historical technique of forming leather through the application of water and heat, often referred to as Cuir Bouille. I was inspired to undertake this research due to mention in the Tournament Book of King Rene of Anjou (1460), of a helm being worn formed entirely of leather to participate in the tournaments of the day in Brabant, Flanders and Hanault.
“ Et quant à leurs armeures de teste, ont ung grant bacinet à camail sans visière, lequel ils atachent par le camail dessus la brigandine tout autour, à la poictrine, et sur les espaules à fortes agueilletes; et pardessus tout cela mettent ung grant heaulme fait d’une venue, lequel heaulme est voulentiers de cuir boully et pertuisé dessus, à la largeur d’ung tranchoires de bois, et la veue en est barrée de fer de trois dois en troys dois, lequel est seulement atachié devant à une chaesne qui tient à la poictrine de la brigandine, en façon que on le peult gester sur l’arczon de la selle pour soy refréchir, et le reprandre quant on veult. “
“And over all this they put a great helm made all in one piece of cuir bouilli and perforated below, the size of a wooden trencher, and the eyeslot is barred with iron in a grid three fingers square, which is attached in front by a chain to the breast of the brigandine, so that you may hang it from the saddle to refresh youself, and put it on again when you wish.”